Landscape Lighting – Recycled Gin Bottle Light
Landscape lighting is a perfect opportunity to use recycled and quality materials in interesting ways! Most of what is available today is either cheap and disposable or hundreds of dollars per fixture. When I set out to create some path lights for our place, neither route appealed to me. Instead, I decided that this would be a good opportunity to see what could be created from recycled materials and easily sourced objects.
The creative process started when my wife found a box of gin bottles at our local recycling yard. Someone undoubtedly thought they were too pretty to destroy and left them aside, so she spirited them away. The square profile and light blue color of this bottle is indeed a beautiful combination. I realized that with a little modification they would make perfect post lanterns.
After some trial and error I discovered that the bottle thread was actually the right diameter to twist into a 1″ PVC exterior electrical conduit. It’s not a precise match and for some reason it only worked in about 50% of the female fittings that I tried, but for the ones that worked it fits snugly and provides a solid connection.
Ideally, path lighting should be close to the ground. That reduces glare and keeps the light intensity where you need it – on the walking surface. In order to accomplish this, I used a standard copper 4×4 fence cap. The copper tone provided a nice compliment to the light blue glass and the overhanging pyramidal cap added some design flair to the lantern. To attach the cap, I used a strip of double sided glazing tape around the perimeter where it overlaps the bottle. That filled in the 3/8″ lip and made for a secure connection.
Staking the unit to the ground was easy. With the electrical conduit fitting attached to the bottle end, I simply cut lengths of 1″ conduit at a 45 degree angle and drove them into the ground to act as a support stem. A small hole bored into the side of the stem allowed for routing the electrical feed wire through the interior, underground and out of view.
The lights are 12 volt (1 watt) LEDs which I sourced from an auto parts seller along with the electrical whips for connecting to the transformer feed wire. The lights are exceptionally bright, last a long long time, and use almost no energy. After testing them out, I realized they were in fact too bright! They needed a diffuser of some kind to reduce the glare and spread out the light more evenly. After experimenting with a bunch of different media, I opted for another waste product – shattered tempered glass. It’s easy to come by. I got mine from an auto glass shop, but there’s plenty of it around. The small glass beads are free, perfect for diffusing and refracting the light, and their use keeps them out of the waste stream.
One of the best things about this solution is its adaptability. Round bottles and caps could be used. The parts are qualitative (glass and copper), so the end solution doesn’t feel cheap or temporary. And finally, the parts are easily replaceable. If you’re lawnmower happens to throw a rock through one of your path lights, have a few gin and tonics and you’re all set.
Installing a Soapstone Masonry Heater
If you’re looking for a beautiful, fuel efficient heat source that works even when the power is out, then a masonry heater is an excellent choice.
Here in Cascadia, we’re increasingly aware that a major earthquake will likely disrupt the power grid for an extended amount of time. Therefore, when we recently remodeled our home we decided to compliment our existing electrical heating system with a wood fired masonry heater.
Why wood? It’s low-tech, easy to store, renewable and locally available. We use the discarded slab wood from a local sawmill. It’s easy to split and cut to length and makes for an efficient use of a waste product.
Why a masonry heater? Unlike most wood burning appliances, masonry heaters are exceptionally clean burning and fuel efficient. They use intelligent design rather than brute force to heat your home. The principle is to burn a small hot fire quickly and then store the heat within stone or masonry. The slow release of energy from the mass provides steady even heat for the duration of the day. In practical terms, this means that one fire in the morning and evening will comfortably heat your home. The flywheel effect of heating your house intermittently conserves a lot of wood. Overall, we use less than 2 cords each year to heat our home … and we have a retrofitted 1940’s cottage with 2×4 walls. A modern home could be significantly more efficient.
The drawback to most masonry heaters is their size. Some of them are positively huge! Our house is relatively small and needed a solution that was scaled appropriately. After a fair bit of research, we settled on the Tulikivi. It’s a Finnish design that utilizes soapstone as its thermal mass. Soapstone is incredibly dense and can, therefore, store a vast amount of heat within a small footprint. We contacted the west coast distributor: Alaska Masonry Heat and they helped us fine-tune our selection. Ultimately, we decided on the TU-1000T
As an architect, I enjoyed the planning process, but also found it challenging. The fit was complex. The fireplace was designed to center on the entry door but was also centered on an angled wall relative to the Living Room. The flue pipe needed to precisely align with the second floor wall above, but steer clear of a structural beam passing through the area. Finally, a ship’s ladder staggered through the cavity behind the fireplace to access the loft with a whole list of its own constraints. Once everything was accounted for, there was about ½” of tolerance to make everything work. That meant the planning needed to be spot on.
The guides and resources available were a little hit and miss. For instance, in Europe, they use “Foam Glass” for their details (which isn’t available here in the US). Gradually I pieced together a set of materials from both metric and imperial sources, photos from other installations, and conversations with the distributor that helped me understand how everything was intended to go together.
We decided to elevate the fireplace about 6″ off the floor. That provided a nice visual base for the Tulikivi and allowed an even number of chimney surround blocks to meet the ceiling. It also aligned the bench tops with the stone coursing at the ergonomically correct height of ±18″ above the floor. The benches add some overflow seating to our modest living room and a “hot seat” if you want to get close to the stone on a cold night. They also serve to contain the wood storage beneath them.
Here’s a layout of the plan showing the fireplace in relationship with the hearth, benches, walls and the beam above. The stair has been omitted for clarity.
Here’s a partial section showing the transition from the foundation through the floor system upwards to the second floor.
Masonry heaters are heavy, so they need to be supported by a dedicated foundation or a carefully engineered solution. We located ours on the first floor where we were able to cut a hole in the floor and install a new CMU support structure and concrete footing in the crawlspace. Our intention is to have the unit survive a decent earthquake, so we didn’t skimp on reinforcing.
The Tulikivi kit is precisely machined, so it was important to get the base perfectly level. The conduit sticking up out of the corner provides power access to the interior of the unit for heating cables. The cables are an optional extra and allow the mass to function as an radiant heater during long absences. We wanted to have this option available to us, but would advise against it – as we’ve yet to use it.
Here’s what the project looked like prior to the arrival of the fireplace. As you can see, the concrete slab is in and the conduit has been trimmed flush to the surface. The chimney flue is in and ready for connection at the top of the unit.
The fireplace comes as a palletized kit with all of the pieces precut and ready for assembly. Isaac, our master mason made the trip up from Oregon to do the assembly. As I recall, he had already built over a hundred of these before tackling ours and after watching the assembly process over the next few days, I came to appreciate how much practice and skill was required. This isn’t a DIY level job. Hire a professional if you’re planning to go this route.
In order to build the unit tight to the wall, a heat shield was required. We built it out of lengths of hat channel, metal drywall bead and sheet metal panels. The end result is three stacked 1″ cavities that all allow air to flow convectively from the bottom to the top. This protects the wall from heat build up and circulates the heat up and out into the room.
Slots are milled into the sides of the blocks in the photo above. During assembly, these receive metal tabs that mechanically connect the blocks to one another. In addition, a very thin layer of high strength stone “glue” is applied to the joints. It’s composed of soapstone dust and a liquid bonding agent which imparts exceptional strength.
Here you can see the unit going together. Isaac used our fireplace to train Marinko Kordich (a local mason) on the particulars of the assembly.
Here’s a cut-away view of the base layer. The cavity in the center will ultimately house the ash pan. The round holes cut into the side blocks will receive removable plugs for cleaning. Some ash residue can settle into the base of the interior baffles (where the flue gasses are routed prior to exiting the top of the chimney) and need to be vacuumed out once a year.
Here’s the unit mostly assembled.
And here’s a view with the benches under construction. Steel angle was fastened to the walls and then mortised into the soapstone slabs for a nearly invisible installation. You can see the damper installed at the top left. It’s fully open when the fireplace is in use and closed when it is not (to prevent the escape of heat up the flue). Unlike most wood stoves, the airflow is not reduced to burn the wood slowly. That results in poor combustion and a lot of pollution. As the stone collects the heat for distribution later, the fire is encouraged to burn hot and fast. A side benefit of this strategy is that it also keeps the glass clean and dramatically reduces soot buildup in the chimney.
Originally, we had planned a simple steel plate hearth for the front of the fireplace but we quickly noticed how much gear was needed: newspaper, lighters, clean up tools, etc. So, we decided to evolve the hearth into a piece of functional art. We enlisted the aid of Jeff Holtby (an exceptional craftsman and blacksmith) who came up with the idea of retractable finger pulls modeled on the action of a flute. When depressed, these provide easy access to the floor box below. Otherwise, they form a flush surface and prevent embers from dropping into the box below. As an added safety measure, we treated the box with a fire proof solution. The last bit was tiling over the concrete base with soapstone to make everything match.
Here you can see the final effect with everything complete. The grain in the stone feeds the imagination. Sometimes I feel like I’m looking at the surface of Jupiter. That is when I’m not mesmerized by the simple beauty of the fire itself.
Alternating Tread Stair
A ships ladder is a great option for ascending between floors when little space is available. We built this alternating tread stair in our own home to access a yoga and meditation loft. It tucks into a modest 24″ wide cavity formerly inhabited by a hall closet.
The stringers and treads are fashioned from hand selected 2×12 fir framing lumber while the risers are built out of 1×12 fir lumber. The entire stair was glued and screwed together in the loft above and then lowered into place as a single unit.
After experimenting with a variety of geometries, we found 60° to be the sweet spot for the stair. It’s compact and space saving, and provides natural ergonomic movement. Above that pitch and you may find your knees colliding with the upper treads on the ascent.
Originally, we had planned to install a handrail, but after we used it a number of times, we found that it was ergonomically more comfortable to go down frontwards than backwards. In that position, due to the steepness of the descent, it feels safer and more natural to brace off of the walls than to try and grip a railing. Please note, this stair was built during a time when it was exempt from code requirements. For the most part, these stairs are now regulated and handrails are generally required.
Speaking of the walls, the dark blue paneling makes for a nice aesthetic compliment to the natural tones of the fir. The paneling is cedar that Matthew salvaged from one of his client’s remodel projects. It was in OK condition, but came in short lengths and had the dated look of material from the 1970’s. Our desire was to apply a finish that revealed the natural grain of the wood, blend in the more distressed parts and give it a more contemporary feel.
After some experimentation we came up with a fairly easy solution:
The material already had a clear finish on it, so rather than trying to strip it off, sand it, and re-apply a new finish, we went with a simpler approach. We cleaned the boards and then wiped on a very thin coat of dark blue latex paint. The clear finish prevented the paint from soaking into and saturating the wood resulting in a washed effect. However, the paint left behind a rough texture on the boards which wasn’t pleasant to touch. We solved that by lightly scrubbing the boards with steel wool. The result was a beautiful honed finish that feels smooth and polished.
A Self-Sorting Home Recycling System
I was looking for a convenient way to sort recyclables that was easy to access from my kitchen, but didn’t take up a lot of valuable space. Nothing seemed to fit the bill, so I decided to give it a go and see if I could come up with a clever solution that would make this task seem more like play than work. Spoiler alert – it worked!
There’s probably a zillion variations on this theme, but for everyone who has bins littering their entryways, mudrooms and back porches, these ideas might come in handy.
OK – a little context. We live in a semi-rural community where sorted recycling is a requirement. It takes a little more mindfulness up front, but in the big picture makes a whole lot of sense. Co-mingling goods results in a lot of contamination and makes it hard to process. The industry as a whole is struggling with this fact and one of the best ways we can keep our resources in circulation is by keeping them organized and clean. I’ve chosen to write about this topic now, because China (the primary global purchaser of recyclables) has recently increased its requirements for clean waste. Without a buyer, many of our municipalities are being forced to send their ‘low-grade’ recyclables to the landfill.
How does it work? We used two different methods for sorting our waste into separate bins. Both work by transporting the items through a wall into a small utility room that is accessed from the outside. Therefore, the bins don’t take up any room in the living space and can be easily loaded into a nearby vehicle when needed. For bulky items, we used a series of magnetic flaps that open when pressure is applied and then snap closed to provide an air seal. For smaller items we used a series of sloping tubes for conveying metals and glass into their respective bins. In all, we needed (8) different bins for glass, metal, plastic and paper products.
Here’s a diagram of the bin layout:
Because our utility room was only 3 feet wide, we stacked the bins in an undulating pattern vertically. The long tubes (made out of 4″ PVC pipe) feed the top and bottom containers while flaps feed bulkier items into the middle row. We used standard ‘Rubbermaid’ containers as they are both cheap and really tough. By using ones that were all the same size, we didn’t need to worry about labeling which is which. Each time we do the recycling, we just shuffle them around.
For the tubes, I experimented with a few different angles and found that 20 degrees was the right slope for items to slide down, but slowly enough to keep glass from shattering at the bottom end. Believe it or not, a 4″ pipe can handle most containers. Pictured below, you can see a large juice jar just fits. Cans and wine bottles are no problem… There’s something childishly satisfying about putting things into the right slot and seeing them woosh away.
To help visitors (and the absent-minded) I put some magnetic label holders on the fridge next to the bins. These are easy to come by if you know to look for them and make it easy to adjust your sorting over time. We just printed out paper labels to slip into the label sleeves.
The magnetic flaps are made from 1/8″ x 1 1/4″ steel flat bar that I welded into a simple frame and painted black. The magnet flaps are made from ‘sign magnet’ material (the stuff that is used for applying advertising to the side of your car). It’s pretty inexpensive and can easily be cut by a razor to the right dimension. The material is white on one side and black on the other. The black side is the magnetic surface and virtually disappears under the shadow of the upper cabinet where we have it installed. This solution is low-tech. The material is screwed to the front face at the top of the opening and covered by the metal frame. The flexibility of the material provides the hinging action when the flap is opened. After a while (in my case a few years), the material cracks at the top and needs to be replaced. So, I recommend buying some extra magnet material when you order it.
Here again, you’ll see the same magnetic labels applied to the steel framework. The center opening is the width of the bin so that the three flaps align to containers below.
Above is an image of how the bin stacking works. Some scrap OSB serves as support ledges for the row of bins above and the three layers all support one another. That allows us to easily unload the whole room without any shelving or supports getting in our way.
When building the system, I needed an easy way to support the bins AND make sure that they were properly aligned to the drop points feeding them. The solution was to weld two pieces of steel angle together and mount them on the wall. The metal tabs fit nicely into the underside of the bins’ handles and serve as both a means of support and alignment. Gravity holds them in place, so it’s an easy thing to remove and replace them when needed.
Other tips: For the tubes, I bought a hole saw slightly larger than the diameter of the pipe. It made the construction really clean and simple to do. As we have (9) bins and only (8) different kinds of recycling, we use the extra bin for mixed paper (it fills up twice as fast as the others). That allows me to swap out the full bin for the spare when needed and extend the time between disposal trips. Occasionally something will get stuck in a tube (usually, it’s the flat end of a metal can). I found a cleaning tool that looks like a canon plunger. It clears the passage in a few seconds.
If you’re up for spending a little bit of time up front to create a system that is easy to maintain then this solution works really well.
Building Stone Walls with Urbanite
If you’re wanting to build beautiful stone walls for your landscape – urbanite rocks! “Urbanite,” better known as waste concrete, is plentiful; lasts pretty much forever; is easy to work with and in most cases … it’s free! Surprisingly, few people take advantage of this great material.
Urbanite replaces our need for stone or new concrete blocks – the primary materials used for landscape walls. Stone requires mining and often has to be transported great distances. Concrete is an energy hog. Its fabrication accounts for 5% of our global emissions. Reducing our need for new material and making good use of what we have makes ecological sense. If you’re concerned there may not be enough of this for your needs, don’t be. Our rapidly changing environments create more of the stuff every year. It’s rock-bottom price should give you a pretty good idea of the ratio of supply to demand.
We’ve seen some installations of this material that were … ahem… aesthetically challenged, so we decided to collaborate with Hector Santos, a professional stone mason and sculptor. We wanted to bypass the learning curve and see what was really possible. It was a great decision. Hector brought a wealth of knowledge and stone craft to the process and patiently shared how those techniques could be adapted to urbanite for a beautiful result.
Here’s an account of our journey and what we learned:
We stopped by the local landscape yard to pick up some materials. As you can see – we had plenty to choose from. This pile is about half an acre in size and more kept showing up every day. The yard owners were extremely generous and allowed us to take as much as we wanted.
Most waste concrete is from concrete slabs and measures about 3″-5″ thick. We sought out material that was relatively uniform (flat on both sides), free of reinforcing and manageable for 1-2 people to transport. We tried to bring home a variety of thicknesses (to add interest to the wall) and were lucky enough to find some scrap slate shingles (good for shims) and some round rocks – which added some artistic interest here and there.
In all it took us about eight trips. With the supply yard close by, that allowed us to use up each load as we went and end the project with very little left over.
We decided to build two sets of walls. The first – a carefully dressed and tapered barrier between the Cargo Shed and the parking area. Its purpose: to enclose a pair of rain garden which slow and filter the road runoff prior to releasing it into a bioswale. The second set of walls would be conventional retaining walls for the landscape beds. These were much easier to build, so for the purpose of this post, we’re going to focus on the free-standing elements.
To start, we excavated a shallow footing (ideally about 12″ deep) and filled it with crushed rock (free of binder). Eliminating the binder allows the footing to drain water easily. Hector prefers a heavier ballast rock for this application, but we found the 1-1/4″ rock to work quite well. The footing needs to extend beyond the footprint of the wall (for stability).
We utilized a rotary laser mounted to a tripod for uniform leveling of the wall. This is an important detail as having a level top really helps to give the wall a finished appearance.
Elsewhere on our property, we’ve used recycled gin bottles as landscape lights. Carrying the theme one step further, we integrated them into the structure of the wall at even intervals. The square nature of the bottle compliments the blocky urbanite and the aqua color adds a little interest. At night, these are illuminated to a soft glow by low voltage LED lamps.
In this photo, you can see the rebar stakes that Hector used for consistent alignment of the sloped wall. The strings are moved up as the wall courses higher. Round stones are added here and there for whimsy and artistic value. When needed, they can be cut or flattened with a diamond blade on a 4″ grinder.
Blocks are laid out to lap onto other blocks below i.e. joints do not align vertically through the wall. For a dry-stacked wall, this ensures structural integrity and reduces settling. Block heights are randomized to avoid a coursed or “layer cake” look. Mortar (Type “S”) was used only where round rocks were used, to stabilize the top cap, or where the blocks weren’t able to penetrate at least 8″ into the wall interior. The bottles are laid loose in the wall in fitted slots – so that they can be removed for light bulb access.
Perhaps the most important step in making a professional looking wall is to take the time to shape the blocks. This is where Hector’s experience really came through. Most people rely on fitting stones together, but for a tightly jointed wall, shaping is necessary. It’s actually not that hard and can be done with just a few tools:
To trim a block, scribe a line with a diamond bladed grinder. The cut relieves the surface tension and helps the block to break along that edge. This can be done to the top and bottom surfaces for better control. Then, using a cold chisel and a hammer, whack along the kerf until the block breaks. It takes some practice. The deeper the kerf, the more likely the block is to break along that joint.
To give the concrete a more uniform appearance (resembling stone), we chiseled the exposed face of the smoother blocks. That may sound hard, but it actually goes pretty fast. We would cut a shallow kerf about 3/8″ from the face of the block on the top and then spall off the face. We elected not to do this for the landscape walls and it still looked OK, but this attention to detail really results in a higher quality finish.
Another technique we employed was splitting the larger pieces into smaller chunks. This was done with “feathers and wedges.” Basically, you drill holes (with a roto hammer) evenly along a slot cut into the top surface. The holes are about half the depth of the material. You then insert steel wedges and L-shaped “feathers” and pound away. The goal is to drive the wedges in at the same rate so that even pressure results until … presto the block snaps in two. This whole process takes about five minutes and can quickly turn a large unwieldy slab into smaller useful pieces.
If you’re feeling lucky and want to try a faster method, you can try just cutting a deep groove on the top and bottom of a block and whacking the slot with a cold chisel. If the combined cuts are about 2/3 of the block depth, this tends to work pretty well. Less than that and you’ll need some luck.
If you do this professionally, or just happen to love tools, then a concrete wet-saw makes quick work of block shaping. Here’s a picture with Hector unleashing its might on a corner block. It should go without saying that safety gear is essential.
In our case, we wanted an architectural wall reminiscent of the CCC era masons. Their work is still in service in our local parks and is testament to the longevity of this type of construction. Toward that end, we felt it was worth a little more effort for something that will be around a long … long time. Hector likes to say that “stone is forever” … and in the context of our lifetimes, that’s a very true statement.
Here’s a picture of Hector and Matthew sitting atop the finished wall. Optimal sitting height is about 18 inches. While the ground slopes along the wall length, it averages about that height.
Natural color variation in the urbanite adds interest. Some of our material must have come from a boat ramp as barnacles have encrusted the surface. It just blends in … until you study it closely and then you’re like “Hey Wait a Minute!?”
I love it when architecture reveals more to us the deeper we look.
Here’s a few parting images. The first shows the whole assembly in the early morning. For the rain garden, Sarah complimented the native reeds with dogwood, iris, juncus, camas lily and gunnera. The background wall steps slightly where the higher parking lot wall meets the lower path wall. Visually, the two flow into one another.
The latter image shows the landscape wall along the path. Here, the back side of the urbanite is buried into the soil, so uneven pieces are easy to fit into the wall assembly. Gravel is backfilled behind the blocks for stability and drainage.
If you decide to use urbanite on your next project, send us a photo … we would love to see what you come up with. If you’re nearby and want a skilled artist to help you realize your vision, give Hector a call. He’s currently plying his skills in Vermont, but is willing to make the journey west during the long cold New England winters.
Installing a Living Roof – Fast!
Over the years, we’ve been a strong advocate for living roofs. Their beautiful form graces many of our projects as well as our home and office.
The appeal is many-fold: Living roofs replace the ecology disturbed by buildings by moving it upward – to the roof level. There, planted roofs provide habitat, carbon sequestration and oxygen. They reduce and filter stormwater. They extend the life of roof coverings (up to 2x) by shielding them from UV, environmental wear, and extreme temperature. Plants add a dynamic element as well. They change with time and seasons and the resulting beauty provides considerable psychological benefit. We like the way that they help to connect us to the natural world. During migrations, we often find flocks of birds resting on our roof as they take a break before flying on.
We’ve explored many different ways to build a living roof and finally had the opportunity to utilize Blooming Nursery’s Greenfeathers system. It’s by far the quickest installation that we’ve seen and the result is a completely grown in roof – all in the course of a day! The secret is in planning ahead.
The Greenfeathers system is a series of modular 1’x2′ trays that are pre-grown at the nursery. The designer specifies the right plant mix (based upon climate, sun exposure, aesthetic requirements, drought tolerance, etc). The nursery then grows the flats ahead of time at their facility. Hence the planning ahead – it takes several months to grow the plants to maturity. Once they are ready, the flats are delivered and ready for installation.
Installation is fast. The roof we planted was a few hundred square feet and took about half a day.
The principles for installation are simple:
- Start with a professionally installed, fully waterproof membrane roof
- Add a complimentary layer of material to protect the membrane from puncture during installation. In our case, we used a second layer of loose laid TPO roofing (ballasted by the planted roof materials).
- Use drain rock around the perimeter, scuppers, drains, and building edges where you don’t want plant materials to deteriorate other parts of the building such as cladding or trim.
- Install the plant trays in a tightly fit configuration (measure the roof ahead of time and plan your layout).
- Remove the edge liners from the trays. This will allow the plants and soil media to blend together between trays so that the roof can grow together into one densely grown mat.
- Water in the roof deeply and intermittently as recommended until the plants are established.
While at first blush, the system seems more expensive than other DIY installations, it may in fact be cheaper (especially for smaller roofs). Finding and procuring good roof soil can be difficult and time consuming – as can finding an adequate supply of plants suited to your roof. If you are planning well in advance, you may be able to coordinate with other projects in your area and thereby share the delivery cost.
Speed is a big advantage with this system. By having fully grown in plants, the roof soil is never exposed to weed seed – which virtually eliminates the likelihood of invasive plants establishing themselves on your roof. Dandelions and other aggressive interlopers can put strain on your waterproofing membrane, so keeping them at bay is important. Since roofing soils are not exposed for any length of time, they don’t need to be protected from erosion. Further, the grown in materials are suitable for steeper roof installations (where baffles would be required to keep soil from sloughing off the roof). Finally, installing fully mature plants means instant benefits: Stormwater retention, oxygen production … you name it!
One consideration we weighed was the additional plastic prevalent in the trays that are installed with the plants. Upon reflection, we realized that virtually the same amount of plastic is used for tray delivery at nurseries where the plants are grown, delivered and sold. So, unless you are installing plugs or cuttings the resulting embodied energy is about the same. The benefit of this system is that the installed trays do act as a root stop barrier and will facilitate the removal and replacement of the plant materials if and when the roof membrane needs to be replaced.
Overall, we were quite pleased with the experience. Designing far enough ahead of time, we were able to choose just the plants that we wanted (rather than the ones commercially available at the time). The speed of installation was a huge plus … and the satisfaction of seeing a complete roof after only a few short hours was priceless.
Tiny House – The Making of the Kingfisher
When friend and master craftsman Dan Neumeyer, approached me about collaborating with him on a tiny house it piqued my interest.
So much of design is about stripping away the unnecessary so that only the essential remains.
Tiny houses do this.
They reduce the footprint of the material world greatly. In doing so, an alchemical process can take place; one where the reliance on things for satisfaction can be replaced by a love for experience. That is not to say that the two are mutually exclusive, only that in a Zen kind of way, consciously reducing materialism in one’s life can act as a catalyst for engaging the world more.
I agreed to the endeavor. My only requirement was that in addition to creating a well-crafted home, we also incorporate sustainable technology wherever it made sense. Dan enthusiastically agreed.
I grew up in a wooden boat community and am well versed in the magic of small spaces. However, to learn more about the subject, I decided to research a little deeper.
After reviewing many unique home-built creations and the catalog of Tumbleweed designs, I discovered an interesting pattern: Nearly all tiny homes are designed with entrances on the end of the building. This preference, I concluded is primarily aesthetic. That is, when you visually scale down the iconic home, the natural place for the entry porch is at the end; where the peak of the gable roof provides the silhouette seen in almost every child’s drawing. This aesthetic preference I realized, runs counter to the function of a home of this size.
In scale and function, tiny homes are similar to travel trailers. So, when is the last time that you saw a travel trailer with an entry from the end? Hmmm… that’s a head scratcher…
The reason is fairly simple. By accessing the building from the end, much of the building length needs to be kept open and available for circulation. So, I asked: “Can you design a Tiny House with the iconic look and feel of a home with the economy of space found in an Airstream?”
The Airstream (like most trailers) places the access point on the side about 1/3 of the length from the end. That allows both ends of the building to be utilized for dedicated purposes and reduces the walkway space in the middle. Over time, this model has been tested and found to work pretty well.
With the layout goals identified, I explored the character. Much of a home’s style is driven by the roofline. Given the narrow width of a trailered home, eaves really aren’t all that compatible. Therefore, I concluded (like many others) that the New England style with its bobbed eaves and wrap around gutter really was the best stylistic fit.
Chances are that you’ve seen the building already in our portfolio. So, here it is in plan view with annotations explaining its features:
There’s ‘small houses’ and then there’s ‘Tiny Houses.’ I’m not sure where the demarcation between the two is, but considering that the internal area of the Kingfisher is a mere 115 SF I would classify it solidly in the ‘Tiny’ category. The side entrance design allows for a highly effective use of the space. So, despite it’s diminutive footprint, it can comfortably sleep four and with the kitchen directly accessed through the main door, it readily connects to the outside for outdoor dining and entertaining.
Cargo Shed – Complete
The curved roof provides a nice compliment to the box below. It is fashioned from aluminum so it won’t leach zinc into the watershed (harmful to aquatic critters). The space above the container gives ample storage for long materials. It’s surprising how much – a personal mini lumberyard! EMT pipe provides a series of shelf supports for easy sorting. The circular nature of the pipe makes it easy to slide material in and out. Materials can be accessed from both the interior and exterior. This is perfect for both the rainy day project and the über long materials that you didn’t think you could store anywhere (up to 40′ in fact).
Cedar siding culled at the mill was used for the upper walls. Deep overhangs protect the ends and provide shelter when accessing material. Flip up screen doors are envisioned for the ends, but so far bees and birds have not been inclined to call it home – yet!
We finished the building by adding a porch on the backside. It functions as a covered work area or a three season lounge overlooking the garden (depending on our needs).
Overall, the building has been incredibly useful and adaptable. The rooms can support anything from shop space to yoga. Since both rooms have large doors to the outside, moving large items in and out is a breeze. Now that it’s re-painted, anchored to a foundation, and capped with a generous roof, the building should last a very very long time.
Cargo Shed – Storage Loft
The roof is the weakest part of a shipping container. It’s flat, so the salt spray from sea voyages has been slowing working away at its surface. The metal used is a thin gauge and if left uncovered, the existing corrosion would have only gotten worse over time. We thought about just adding a simple roof over the container, but realized that if we were going through the labor of building a protective roof system – why not add a little extra height and utilize the space for storage?
Matthew comes from a lineage of fine woodworkers so he’s always trying to find some place dry to store lengths of lumber and materials. The space above the container is perfectly suited to this. It keeps the material close to where it is needed (the shop) and the design allows for access from either end or the center of the building. Therefore, short or long lengths can be stored with relative ease. In order to make the space really usable, we decided to add EMT pipe supports to divide the space into a number of short bunks. The tubing is strong, inexpensive, and acts as a roller for loading and unloading material.
This photo shows the floor deck and knee walls (prior to being raised into position) for the upper storage area.
For a little aesthetic fun, we decided to cap the storage area with a curved roof…
Cargo Shed – Interior Finish
One of the psychological challenges in using containers is their cold interior.
Despite the ‘cool’ industrial factor inherent in steel design, very few of us opt to live inside metal boxes. We went with our gut on this one and decided to sheath the interior with wood paneling.
The wood gave us a tough surface that we could fasten just about anything to and rearrange things over time. In any kind of industrial building, adaptation is key.
Our wall system is 1×6 t&g pine, stained with a (zero VOC) warm tone. For additional storage, we applied shelves high in the space with inverted shelf brackets (installed above the shelf). That way, the wall surface remains clear. If gusseted brackets are used, this technique also provide bookends at regular intervals.
The paneling provided a more forgiving installation than say plywood. For, as you recall, containers are neither plumb nor square nor level.
Cargo Shed – Insulation
Shipping containers can be really damp inside. The combination of cold steel and humidity often results in condensation and a lot of it. The moister the climate the more problematic this is. Here in the Pacific Northwest, water literally rained off of the interior surfaces during the winter.
Understanding condensation is important. Each climate is different, so the lessons given here may not apply to other locations. I would highly recommend hiring an expert to help you determine if moisture is going to be an issue ahead of time.
A shipping container’s interior surface is corrugated, so it’s difficult to prevent moisture laden air from reaching the steel. In our case, we applied a modest layer of closed cell spray foam to the interior which bonded to the uneven surface and moved the dew point away from the steel to prevent condensation. The foam also acts as a sound dampener and helps to mitigate temperature swings somewhat.
We used a two-tank kit that we purchased online. Installation was fast (1-2 hours).
Cargo Shed – Framing
Contrary to popular belief, containers are neither square, level, nor plumb. The weight of five other containers stacked above causes them to bow out over the years. They are built to general specifications, but we found a fair bit of variation in ours – tolerances up to an inch or so of deviation.
In order to preserve as much interior space as possible, we used 2×2 studs on the interior. They were too slender for the 8 ft. span, so we welded on an angle bracket at the middle of the stud for reinforcement. We then ran our wiring behind the studs using the wall corrugations as additional maneuvering room.
We used 2×4’s to support the ceiling (While the walls are designed for strength, the roof is designed simply to keep the water out. It is constructed of thin gauge steel similar to that of a car roof. Since the container floor carries all the load, even when stacked, there is no direct load on the roof.
The electrical panel required a deeper wall cavity to contain the box and conduit, so we boxed it in with 2×4’s instead of 2×2’s.
The floor is constructed of 1” thick mahogany plywood that is drenched in pesticides (to prevent spreading critters all
over the world). If you’re concerned about your health, consider encapsulating the existing floor by covering it with a finish floor.
We wedged all the framing inside the existing shell. We made firm attachment to the floor, but kept our attachments to the steel to a minimum. Any penetrations through the structure could result in water intrusion over time.
Cargo Shed – Purchase
We did a lot of looking around and finally settled on a shipping company that sold their excess inventory direct to private parties. Delivery was about five hundred dollars and it took a few weeks for the size, shape, and color of container that we wanted to become available.
When you order one, you need to specify whether the cargo doors are to be oriented toward the front or the back of the truck. Once the truck arrives, the container will be oriented whichever way it is unloaded.
It unloads like a dump truck, with the whole bed tilting up so that the container slides off the rear. We positioned one end where we wanted it and then used an excavator to rotate the other end into its final location.
Even though containers are fabricated from Cor-Ten steel, they are still prone to decay if left sitting on the ground. For our purposes, we installed a thick layer of ballast rock (about 6″ above grade) to limit the containers contact with surface moisture. We followed up with concrete piers to positively tie the structure down (earthquake insurance).
Cargo Shed – Design
Our home came without a garage or any other utility space. Being relatively hands-on, we had a need for both a small shop and general storage. Therefore, once we decided to build the structure from a used shipping container we affectionately titled it the “Tool Box.”
Shipping containers typically come in 20 ft. and 40 ft. lengths.The local cost for a forty foot cargo container is about two-thousand dollars. A twenty footer costs about two hundred dollars less. So in the container world, if you buy a larger one, the second half is essentially free. We opted for a “high cube” which has an exterior height of nine feet – six inches. It allows ample headroom inside and space to fur in the floor and ceiling for insulation. When complete, the interior finished space is still over 8 ft. high (we highly recommend going this route).
In order to better utilize the space, we divided the building into three sections. The center provides an access portal from the parking area to the garden while also providing a covered access area for the two storage compartments. We kept the original cargo doors and added a roll up utility door on the other end so that both compartments would have light and access from either end.
We added a roof cover to protect the sliding door and add some interest to front the wall. Tying the building to the fence line helps to visually integrate it into the property. The large porch (hidden from the road behind the container) extends the utility of the building significantly by providing an inexpensive but dry work area. Stylistically, the curved roof is fun, but also protects the top from weather. We took the idea a little further and used the roof to protect a series of storage bunks above the rooms. Having material sorted, dry and close is perfect – plus it’s extremely compact and can store a wide range of material lengths.
Cargo Shed – Big Picture
Due to the trade imbalance, cargo containers have been piling up in the US for decades. You can now purchase a decommissioned shipping container for less than the cost of scrap steel. Since we live close to a port city (Seattle), we decided to make inventive use of this “waste” material.
Those of you following the current trend in modern architecture have seen a dramatic increase of cargo containers in residential applications. This typically costs a lot more than people realize. Their modest width and lack of amenities require numerous upgrades and the skills to work with steel that are less common in the construction trades.
They are, however, an amazing resource – one that we believe is better suited to utilitarian support buildings.
Containers are durable, simple, modular, and movable, so they can endure a great amount of negligence and adapt to changing circumstances easily. The challenge is mainly aesthetic. To most, they are an eyesore and parking one in your yard amounts to an immediate deduction in your property value (and your neighbor’s good will).
The challenge, is how to retool a shipping container so that it looks integrated into your environment? Furthermore, how do you do so inexpensively? Finally, how do you adapt them to the needs of everyday use rather than the specific needs of shipping material? These are the questions that we set out to answer.
Photo credit: Wikimedia Commons